Abstract: This papper describes a modeling and prototipate flapping wing ornithopter model. Before the studies about FMAV mechanisms and systems, four models were built to understand and replicated the theorical foundations based on Technology Readiness Levels. During the modeling process, fatigue results and material choices were expected and happened based on reference literature and wing model switching was effective for modeling success. The prototyping phase is being initiated based on the results found in the modeling.

Keywords: Flapping Wings, Ornithtopter, UAV, MAV, FMAV and TRL.
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Inspired by Birds: Engineering Allied to Nature
Dellamajora Lino, Murilo
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Abstract: Governmental regulatory activity impacts us daily, but mostly we do not even notice it. Probably nearly every product in our households has been affected by some state regulation, but most common citizens know almost nothing about how the regulatory process works. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to analyze the major works about how regulations are made. It is important to notice that this work does not have the objective of reviewing legal norms that indicates how regulatory processes work in one country or another, but to evaluate how public or political agents (regulators) tend to work, i.e., what tends to dictate their behavior, how lobbying activities affect regulation, what role do institutions have. To achieve its aim, the paper uses a methodology based on literature review. It was found that it is commonly assumed that regulators pursue society’s public interest, but many scholars have criticized this view over the years. One of the major schools of thought that opposes such assumption is the Public Choice. Even if many works have been conducted within the framework of the Public Choice school, it is possible to say that its major basis is the idea that public agents tend to pursue their own interests. The Theory of Economic Regulation was created among Public Choice scholars and assumes that industries that have enough power to buy legislation from politicians will most likely do it by providing votes and resources. Even so, other works have suggested that we cannot only assume that a regulator’s private interest will be the only factor that affects his behavior. The paper then also analyzes some works based on an institutional approach. This view aims in also studying how the regulatory institutions work (and not only individuals) and how external institutions may influence the regulatory process. The paper concludes by stating that we cannot be overly idealistic or too skeptical. Even if as general rule it is not possible to deny that most regulators are usually also influenced by their own private interests, it is also possible to value public interests within the government through institutional design.

Keywords: Public Law; Regulation; Public Choice; Public Interest Theory; Interest Group Theory.
How Are Regulations Made? From Public Interest Theory To an Institutional Approach
Delvaux Parma, Gustavo
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Abstract: Primary health care (PHC) can be viewed as a strategy to organization and reorganization of health systems. Based on Starfield (1994), primary care is based on essential and derivative attributes of PHC. The essential attributes are first contact access, longitudinality, comprehensiveness and coordination and the derivate attributes are family orientation, community orientation, and cultural competency. With regard to child health, the National Comprehensive Child Health Care Policy (PNAISC) summarizes how Brazilian child health care is organized, and indicates PHC as the central point of this care and as the coordinator of the other points of the health care networking. The goal of this paper was to evaluate the presence and extent of the attributes of PHC in child health care in Brazil. Methods: Systematic review conduced on Scopus with articles published between 2017 and 2021, focusing on PHC for children in Brazil and that used Primary Care Assessment Tool - Brazil (PCATool - Brazil) to evaluate the attributes of PHC. Results: Child PHC in Brazil had a satisfactory result on the some of the essential attributes of PHC and an unsatisfactory result on the derivative ones. The essential attributes first contact – utilization and coordination - information systems had an adequate outcome, while first contact – access didn’t perform well. Concerning longitudinality and coordination – care integration, the care provided present disparities between regions. The different outcomes on comprehensiveness is related to the type of service provided. Furthermore, the derivative attributes family and community orientation didn’t have a good outcome. Conclusion: Based on the results, child PHC in Brazil has strong attributes as first contact – utilization and coordination - information systems. However, it doesn’t present a satisfactory extent of all PHC attributes, with an unequal longitudinality and coordination – care integration among regions and a best comprehensiveness on FHS (Family Health Strategy). The North and Central-West regions need a better representation on studies concerning the attributes of child PHC.

Keywords: Primary health care, child health, evaluation of health services, quality of health care, attributes of PHC, PCATool – Brazil.
Attributes of Primary Health Care For Children In Brazil
Dias Pires, Evelly
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Abstract: During the 20th century, the importance of collaboration between States in the international system grew exponentially, especially due to the frightening consequences of the two world wars. In addition, technological advances, especially in the field of communication, have allowed greater contact and integration between nations across the globe. Therefore, the challenge of cooperation between States is of legitimate importance for Brazilian rulers, both for economic, social, cultural or humanitarian reasons and for Brazil's insertion in the international system. In 2010, recognition by COBRADI, the Lula government gives cooperatives different from the traditional ones to achieve as an important actor in the international system.

Keywords: International Cooperation, Lula Government, Foreign Policy.
COBRADI as an Instrument of “Graduation” During the Second Lula Government
Emídio Machado, Leonardo
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Abstract: This paper has the goal of analysing lab-grown meat, made from the extraction of animal cells. First, problems of the meat industry are debated. After that, a definition of lab-grown meat is sought, as well as clarifications about its synthetization. Subsequently, economic, environmental and market acceptance impacts are analysed, mainly on the context of the European Union and United Nations sustainability goals. The core of the debated proposed in this work is to examine if cultured meat products are able to be a solid alternative for traditional meat under three aspects: (i) environmental protection; (ii) economics and (iii) consumer acceptance. The paper uses concepts of environmental law; animals rights; green economics and sustainability for its development.

Keywords: Environmental Law; Lab-grown meat; Greenhouse effect; Food Law; Sustainability.
Cultured Meat: New Perspectives On the Meat Industry
Evans Barbati, Pedro
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Abstract: The objective of this article is to investigate how the theme of hunger and poverty in Haiti is being discussed in scientific research already carried out theorizing the theme, we adopted as methodological strategy, from a literature review, demarcate the following descriptors: 1) Hunger and poverty in Haiti, 2) Brazilian program Fome Zero, 3) Social programs and 4) Cultural Hunger in the period from August 17 to 23, 2021. We used two databases, of theses and dissertations available online: the Biblioteca Digital Brasileira de Teses e Dissertações (BDTD) and the Catálogo de Teses e Dissertações of the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES). The linguistic technique called skimining was used to read the theses, and the analysis was done using the MAXQDA tool, software for qualitative and mixed methods research. It is concluded that the analyzed theses did not provide enough theoretical and conceptual indexes about Haitian hunger. It is considered a separate case that deserves dedication, discussion and reflections, besides the ideas of social programs, since these would imply in investments, funds that the government does not have, it is time for another way to understand the root of hunger and poverty in Haiti.

Keywords: Cultural Hunger; Hunger and Poverty in Haiti; Zero Hunger Program; Social Programs.
Theoretical Investigations to Explain Haiti's Famine
Exime, Ethol
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Abstract: By critically comparing the literature on feud in its emergence as an anthropological concept, in its development as a tool for interpreting late medieval societies (especially in the German and Bohemian contexts), and in its possible identification in the analysis of Amerindian tribal societies of Latin America, we discovered a legitimate hypothesizing of a concrete spectrum of the feud dynamics of fission and fusion that tends to an universal usage of the concept and further approximates the studies of pre-statal vengeance in different historical contexts.

Keywords: Peace, Feud, State, Tribe, Europe, Latin America.
Feuds For and Against Unity: A Critical Comparison
Falcăo de Andrade, Caetano
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Abstract: Infographics are, basically, information presented in a graphical way. It includes graphics, diagrams, images, illustrations, timelines and amongst other things, maps. This last feature presents the geo-location as data, and combined with infographics may expand the possibilities of thematic cartography, to the point that some authors apply the term geo infographics instead of thematic cartography. Attempting to reunite some perspectives about the comprehension, interpretation or understanding of infographics in maps, or geo infographics, this bibliographical review paper aimed to summarize a few studies on this topic. As a result, 6 studies were found, in which the analyses were separated by educational uses and other contexts. The first group combined bibliographical studies about the benefits of the use of geographic infographics for learning processes; a practical activity on the construction of traditional thematic maps and maps with infographics; and a guide providing more possibilities with the use of infographics in general as well as maps with infographics in teaching. In other contexts, a paper was found about the influence of journalism and social media in the cartographic patterns and maps elaboration; a call for the importance of including maps in the graphical information on disaster risks as a possibility to increasing the engagement in actions for self-protection; and an investigation on how maps and infographics may be used to spread some tendentious messages. In conclusion, there is a notable lack of studies aimed at checking the understanding or interpretation of infographics in maps in specific groups (such as divided by gender, age, educational level…) or with specific graphical materials (for example, testing different styles of maps, charts, colors, diagrams etc.).

Keywords: Infographics in maps, geoinfographics, graphic information, visual data, interpretation, apprehension, assimilation, perception, bibliographical research.
A Brief Literature Review About the Comprehension of Infographics in Maps
Félix da Rocha, Mariane
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Abstract: Throughout history, monetary control has always been in the hands of the State that plays this role in a centralizing way. However, the invention of a decentralized digital currency called Bitcoin in 2008, which at first seemed harmless, sent a warning signal that it could pose a danger and change the course of monetary history. Thus, this article aims to address the response offered by States in the face of the Bitcoin threat and the consequences of this choice based on monetary theories. Finally, it is concluded that, in fact, the advent of Bitcoin has changed the course of monetary history, however, everything indicates that the Bitcoin will not be the protagonist of this new digital age, but rather the States through the digital version of their national currencies known as the Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC).

Keywords: State. Digital currency. Bitcoin. Central Banks. CBDC.
Response of Sovereign States to Bitcoin: The use of Blockchain and the Central Bank Digital Currencies
Felix da Silva Mota, Felipe
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Abstract: Brazilian Pharmacy schools have been extensively adapting their course curricula in response to the latest national guidelines, published in 2017. However, the emergency of Coronavirus Disease 2019 has dramatically affected global education on several levels beyond the suspension of in-person classes, and the impacts promoted by this exceptional context are still unrevealing. This review aims to analyze the challenges and lessons for pharmaceutical education in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil and to discuss how the current transformations in the profession, also impacted by the pandemic, might influence the students’ development. Thus, a literature review was conducted on MEDLINE and Scopus databases. The few studies identified addressing this topic presented heterogeneous objectives and methods, but demonstrated varied initiatives to implement remote models and engage pharmacy students in this context. Different aspects of the educational process were addressed, evaluating parameters from mental health to the students’ satisfaction with active learning methods tested. Generally, the authors registered positive perceptions of the proposed interventions during the pandemic but reported obstacles such as mental health issues, compromised development of practical skills, structural limitations, and aggravated discrepancies between public and private education. The experiences mentioned in this narrative review should help to reexamine pharmaceutical education, considering aspects such as virtual flexibility, development of computational skills, and reinforcement of evidence-based health care. In addition, fundamental transformations in the pharmacy labor market must certainly impact the educational background of pharmacists in a near future, including the advances in telehealth and clinical pharmacy attributions.

Keywords: Pharmacy education, COVID-19, distance education, emergency remote learning, Brazilian education.
Pharmacy Education in Brazil on the COVID-19 Pandemic: Current State And Perspectives
Ferreira Bambirra, Eduardo Henrique
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Abstract: Due to the world's growing energy demand, more efficient power generation processes are crucial for global energy security in the future. A valid strategy to increase the total balance of available energy supply, without increasing the consumption of natural resources unrestrainedly, is to reduce the internal consumption of generating power plants, increasing the
final amount of energy generated. In the Brazilian electricity matrix, there is a large portion of thermoelectric power plants which were initially designed and installed as standby electric power plants, which were to be dispatched only on special occasions. However, as these facilities have an efficiency below the desired and their dispatches have constantly been more frequent than originally planned to supply the national electrical system, they present a great energy savings opportunity. This research developed a case study of the Luiz Oscar Rodrigues Melo Thermoelectric Power Plant (UTE LORM), in which data were collected from the supervisory system and alongside the equipment data, made it possible to develop a simplified computational model that evaluated the electric energy consumption of the existing three-phase induction motors in the radiators of the cooling system, when subjected to different speed controls based on the power supply voltage/frequency ratio. The superiority of keeping the V/f ratio in a quadratic behaviour, rather than a linear one, for fan-type loads was attested, by simulating the computational system model for both controls and assessing that the electric energy consumption was about 1,4% lower, resulting on an average efficiency nearly 2,1% higher during the operation of one of UTE LORM's generating units on a day with typical weather conditions.

Keywords: Environmental Law; Lab-grown meat; Greenhouse effect; Food Law; Sustainability.
Modelling and Analysis of the Cooling System Energy Consumption From Thermal Power Plants Powered by Internal Combustion Engine: Case Study or the Thermal Power Plant Luiz Oscar Rodrigues de Melo
Fonseca do Nascimento, Daniel
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Abstract: Innovations in the fields of virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) and the availability and usability improvements seen in recent years in these technologies have opened new possibilities in the field of foreign language learning. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) framework, this study conducted a review of seven recent original articles with empirical data focused on the second language (L2) acquisition using immersive reality technologies. The main aim of this study was to analyze what language skills and what proficiency of students’ language level benefited most from the use of these new technologies. In addition, the authors explored what kind of VR or AR was used since the term may refer to a series of technologies that are not all the same. For instance, VR might mean using headset displays, or it may refer to the use of interactive environments. The results indicate that the current VR and AR tools show a positive impact on L2 acquisition when compared to traditional learning methods, such as book-based learning. As with any recent research field, it should be noted that there are several methodological limitations and that it is necessary to consider the obtained results critically.

Keywords: Second language acquisition, language learning, applied linguistics, virtual reality.
A Systematic Review of Virtual Reality in the Acquisition of Second Language
Forero Pataquiva, Francisco de Paula
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Abstract: This mini- review was conducted with the purpose of gathering information, of articles published throughout the year of 2021, about the therapeutic properties that Hibiscus rosa-sinenis L. triggers in cases of gastrointestinal ulcers, a disease mainly caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori.
New antibiotics are needed for H. pylori, because of the rising antimicrobial resistance that the world is facing right now, and so, medicinal plants are on the scope to solve that matter. The Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has presented many therapeutic attributions over the past years, there were antibacterial properties found in the flowers and anti-inflammatory activities in the leafs, with that in mind, this medicinal plant must be a promising way to anti- ulcer treatments. Herbal/ traditional medicine is been widely used in the West asia for centuries, as for example the chinese medicine, and now, the eastern medicine is trying to catch up with this knowledge that can be so enriching, especially if we can substitute the synthetic for the natural. Every year thousands of papers are published on the same subjects, hence the importance of review papers, which study articles on related subjects and make an overview, highlighing some parts of each one.

Keywords: Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, ulcer, medical plants, anti-inflammatory potencial.
Anti-Ulcer Action of Hibiscus Rosa-Sinensis: Review of Articles Published in 2021
Gomes Gameiro, Beatriz
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Abstract: The present work was developed based on the necessity to ensure the air quality monitoring in places where there is a lack and difficulty of implementation due to the high cost of monitoring stations. The SDS011 sensor and the Beta BAM1020 attenuation monitor were used to evaluate the concentration of particulate matter. Duplicates of the sensor were used in the monitoring site for comparison with the equipment, and to evaluate the readings and the association with temperature and humidity data according to hourly and daily averages. Weak correlations were obtained, with R² maximum value equal to 0.38, and a variable behavior of readings estimation of the low-cost sensor in relation to the reference equipment, evaluated from the regression lines and the calculation of bias errors, which suffered influence from abruptly high values. The precision was evaluated based on the coefficient of variation, with a maximum value of 43%, and the maximum data completeness suffered a decrease due to energy losses at the monitoring site, reaching a maximum value of 59%.

Keywords: Air quality monitoring, particulate matter, low cost sensor.
Analysis of a Low-Cost Sensor for Particulate Matter Monitoring
Gonçalves Dias Chaves, Marianna
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Abstract: There are a growing number of counter-hegemonic Brazilian scientific productions. The gradual process of decolonization of Brazilian universities, a result of the struggle of social movements, has opened space for researchers to present alternatives for scientific production. In this paper we will work with the hypothesis that there is a significant number of Brazilian academic works that seek to detach themselves from hegemonic theories based on new alternatives of epistemologies, ontologies and value systems. To support it, we point to ten works that use emerging epistemologies and ontologies and value systems to formulate conceptions and theories about socially marginalized groups.

Keywords: Decolonization; emerging epistemologies; counter-hegemonic theories; marginalized groups.
Brazilian Scientific Production: Emerging Epistemologies, Ontologies and Value Systems
Guanabara Neves, Daniel
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Abstract: Freshwater fish whose migration course is blocked by a hydroelectric power plant often pass through the turbine rather than through safer passageways in their effort to reach the tailrace. As such, they are often subjected to harmful interactions with the turbine mechanism, which can result in injuries or death. This study investigated the main causes of injury to fish in these conditions, and existing design solutions to mitigate these harmful effects, through a literature review. It was found that the main mechanisms for fish injury are strikes against moving and stationary parts, grinding from being stuck in small gaps, decompression from sudden pressure shifts, shock waves from gas bubbles, deformation from shear stress, and disorientation from turbulence. Additionally, fish size and species are two of the most important factors for their survivability, and must be taken into account for the specific river where a turbine is set to be installed. The main existing design proposals for fish-friendly Kaplan and Francis turbines which seek to mitigate these issues are the reduction of gaps between the runner blades and both the hub and turbine housing; the reduction of gaps between stay vanes and wicket gates; a decrease in blade count and consequent creation of more space for fish passage; and turbines with controllable rotational speed and guide vane angles, to allow for operation in the maximum efficiency range, with minimum pressure change and turbulence.

Keywords: Fish-friendly turbine, fish mortality, hydropower, fish passage, state of the art.
A Review of Existing Design Principles for Fish-Friendly Hydro Turbines
Guglielmin Becker, Álvaro
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Abstract: This paper aims to analyze the social and ambiental impacts which came from the construction of Belo Monte hydroelectric in Pará State, Brazil. Despite the discourse of governments authorities about the development that this hydroelectric would bring to the region, in practice, according to the literature review, other points can be demonstrated, such as the impact of Belo Monte’s plant on social groups and the resettlement that they were subjected to. Moreover, the approach given by the government to the ambiental consequences and especially for the community was, still, analyzed by human rights authorities, as the Interamerican Court of Human Rights. In the article, the main points of view on the topic addressed were highlighted and explained, taking into account the motivations of each interested party. According to the point of view presented, the intention was not to solve these issues, but analyze the
main points vinculated with the social groups impacted by the construction and the ambiental damages, as there is still much to be taken into account, which adds to the complexity of the subject. This demonstrated objective was to impartially show the different points opposed, thus opening precedents for questions still unanswered. In conclusion to the work, it was based on the occurrence of EIA (Ambiental Impact Study - Estudo de Impacto Ambiental) and its effort (or lack of it) to contemplating all the aspects that should be analyzed, such as the recognition of each social group affected and also the environmental areas flooded or damaged with the drought of the alteration of the river course.

Keywords: Belo Monte. Hydroelectric. Social impact. Ambiental impact. Human rights.
Belo Monte: A Macro View on Environmental and Social Impacts at Pará
Guimarăes do Nascimento, Laryssa
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Abstract: This study investigated the effects of mass vaccination against the aggressive COVID-19 pandemic. The first case of this disease in Brazil occurred in February 2020, but vaccination campaigns only started in January 2021. Even with vaccination started almost a year after the beginning of the pandemic, they were efficient, reducing deaths by 74% in five months.

Keywords: Brazil, Vaccine, Immunization, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2.
Effects of Mass Vaccination Against COVID-19 in Brazil
Henrique de Souza Sanches, Leonardo
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Abstract: During a growing national and international climate agenda, one of the most important international climate funds emerged, the Amazon Fund (AF), along with it, increasing drops in the level of deforestation were observed. However, this Fund was destabilized with the arrival of the Bolsonaro government to the presidency of Brazil, leading, among others, to the freezing of resources by the main funders of the AF. Today, with the new Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report and after the 26th Conference of the Parties (COP26), it is necessary to analyse what the AF has been doing so far and what are the possible paths it may take in the coming years. To answer these questions, an analysis of primary sources was carried out - such as the AF activities report, INPE data, and others -, in addition to a broad bibliographic review, consultation of articles, and press news. It was observed that throughout its years of operation, the AF has positioned itself as a mechanism of great innovation, but despite the possible criticisms of it, hardly anyone could say that the Fund had a negative balance in the period, because in addition to the remarkable numbers presented by the AF in its years of operation, there was a constant learning curve for both the BNDES and the other actors. In the Bolsonaro government, despite efforts to maintain continuity in its actions, the AF suffered serious blows, which reflected in its performance, but with the prospect of new governments and policies, a window opens for the Fund to reinvent itself and reappear. as the avant-garde instrument, it was created to be.

Keywords: Amazon Fund, Sustainable Development, Bolsonaro; Deforestation; Green Gas Emission.
The Amazon Fund, Retrospect and Possibilities (2008 -?)
Jukemura, Felipe
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Abstract: This paper aims at analyzing the current, the past as well as a prospect of the future situation of infrastructure in Latin America, by presenting the historical integration attempts, their failures, and the ideology behind them. It also gives an insight into missing components to the development of the Region, such as geographical research, mobility planning, and policy analysis. Besides that, it also focuses on the German Model and its benefits, especially for underdeveloped countries that struggle to attract foreign capital.

Keywords: Latin America, Integration, Infrastructure, Development
The Economic and Integrational Effects of Infrastructure Investment in Latin America
Kocsis França, Gustavo
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Abstract: During this first period, the objective was to create three complexes, all containing palladium as a metallic nucleus and thus varying a radical between Chlorine, Iodine and thiocyanate, associating the known biological activity of Pyridines with palladium and platinum complexes, which also already has recognized biological activity. To date, such compounds, including the final complexes and their ligands, were synthesized and underwent the following characterization procedures: Hydrogen Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, infrared absorption spectroscopy and elemental analysis. So far, the characterization of the complex with the chlorine group has been carried out by means of infrared absorption spectroscopy, Hydrogen Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and elemental analysis, all of which favorably indicate the complexation, by the proportions of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen composition – in in the case of elemental analysis –, by the infrared bands and finally by the NMR spectrum, which indicated the amount of expected hydrogens. In the case of the iodine ligand, the NMR spectrum and the infrared spectrum were performed, both also satisfactorily indicating the complexations, through the appearance of bands that indicate the complexation of the metallic nucleus with the Iodine radical and the NMR hydrogen count, also within expectations. Finally, the thiocyanate complex was only characterized by the IR spectrum, as it was not possible in a timely manner to carry out further characterizations, but this spectrum was faithful to what was expected by the complexation with the metallic nucleus, due to the disappearance of certain bands and the emergence of some bands that characterize the complexation of these radicals to the metallic nucleus. Biological activity has not yet been evaluated.

Keywords: Anticancer activity, Imidazole, Palladium(II) and Platinum(II).
Development of Unprecedented PD(II) and PT(II) Complexes Derived From Imidazole
Labruna Cunha, Vito
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Abstract: This study analyzed theses and master's dissertations of indigenous women in public universities of Brazil. The history of the colonization in Brazil left traces of a power dynamic that devalued indigenous culture. With this, the monopolization of knowledge and communication was established by people who reinforce the Eurocentric production of knowledge. We outlined a study that crossed the lines of indigenous women's productions with the discussions already produced by researchers of the decoloniality in human sciences. We faced the silencing processes that these women went through during their studies. We identified the difficulties of dissemination of these important works and the impacts generated by the new dynamics of those who were once objects of study and slowly occupy their spaces in a claim for their place of speech. Therefore, we highlighted the need for direct action by universities to encourage and better disseminate the counter-hegemonic productions of indigenous women.

Keywords: Indigenous women, decoloniality, colonisation, dissertations
Decoloniality of Knowledge: Scientific Dissemination of Indigenous Women Productions
Lares Kludasch, Nara
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Abstract: “Knowledge shall be sought for worldwide and thus be strengthened the foundation of the imperial polity.” These worlds from Emperor Meiji personify the efforts of the Japanese government to transform their nation from a feudal society to a modern state capable of defending itself and its interests. In it, the armed forces would have, since their inception, a vital role in the development of Early Meiji Japan and its positions abroad, possessing a hold on the halls of power that would give it an opening to take control decades later. This study aims to determine how the military influenced the decisions of the new establishment in this period, generating consequences that would define Japanese international policy toward its goals and neighbors. Among the topics that explain how Japan’s journey through the Meiji Restoration was affected by the armed forces’ involvement were the reasons it was needed and the problems faced at the time, internally and externally, during its modernization process. In the coming years, it would fulfill its purpose, be it as an offensive or defensive force, with potential issues to Japan’s security abroad, allowing the armed forces the momentum to advance its interests, such as how it assisted in the creation of a Western-style government while at the same time preventing it from possessing the capacity of extensive interference in their affairs, creating a situation where the military could in certain times circumnavigate edicts from the civilian government and, which would occur decades later, assume political power to the point of taking total control. After analyzing books and articles of several renowned authors that worked in this area, the hypothesis that answers this debacle is that the reason why the armed forces were able to influence the government’s foreign policy was that the process of the Meiji Restoration created a system under which it could assert its interests and views on what it constituted as of significant importance to the security of Japan.

Keywords: Meiji Restoration, security, modernization, foreign pressure, army.
The Meiji Restoration and the Influence of the Armed Forces
Leite Ferrari, Miguel
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Abstract: This essay aimed to analyze the Foucauldian concept of State racism in order to provide a thorough explanation on racist discourse. Although Foucault already provided a good account on the construction of the violence of the sovereign, whose power to decide over life and death is justified, it lacks a profound approach on how discourse can create not only a legitimation of power, but also an intolerant, destructive desire, spread among the population. This was explained by what Deleuze and Guattari called the imbrication between micro and macropolitics, whence specific assemblages are created in order to diffusely support the appropriation of State by a destruction machine. Although not perceived by the authors themselves, such idea arguably can fit well the Althusserian concept of ideology as a creation of subjectivity and, therefore, desire. Fascism, understood then as a desire of destruction, encompasses all the well-known forms of intolerance. Racism appears as its main character, since it is the idea of saving the biological purity of a superior race as a requirement to survive, that justifies the fascist cleansing – which ultimately culminates in the destruction of the self; the war machine becoming a suicidal State. The aforementioned increasingly violent process, in all of its stages, is built within the subjectivities of the people. Thus, its battlefield is a discursive where it is possible to face the cancerous Body without Organs of fascism through the creation of lines of flight.

Keywords: Microracism, State racism, Micropolitics, Discourse, Desire, Ideology.
Microracism: Diffuse Violence as Discourse and Desire
Lima Castro Tranjan, Alexandre
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Abstract: The macroeconomics studies understands the economy as a mathematical form that reflects reality, therefore the base of this field finds itself in equations and functions with variables that correspond to our world, in this perspective each variable changes for each country in each moment of time. Therefore there is always the need to give those calculations and results for the academic community for recent analysis, since the economy is always changing. In this understanding, the University of Pennsylvania is one of the many institutions that are responsible for providing the information collected from many countries from 1950 to 2019, and from those information I calculated the variables of the Cobb Douglas function by the development and growth accounting method, following the David Weil steps described in his books, and after that I made an statistical analysis from those results for the recent data.
Through that method I found out the new outcome, physical capital, workers, and productivity to each country in 2019, and also for past periods of time, however only the 2019 results are relevant for this project. Then, after that I found out that the productivity growth rate of a country is responsible for explaining 80% of the product growth rate variation, much more than used to in 2009, in Weil studies. This shows the importance of making those calculations for the policymakers, for example, that must invest in increasing the productivity of the economy instead of the factors of production to achieve long prosperity.

Keywords: Development accounting, growth accounting, productivity, factors of production.
The Production Function - Recent Calculation and Analysis of the World Data
Lorandi Silveira Lara, Rebecca
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Abstract: A systematic review of the origin of the self and the concept of objective self-awareness. Describing the earlier theories of the self, introducing the child behaviour and the influences of environment on the construction of the self. Specifically, in early childhood when self-awareness takes on more in psychological manifestation. In other to the self- referential which is verbalized to attributes and behaviours. Approaching the development of social understanding of the self and others. Furthermore, are introduced the theories of objective self-awareness and its effects. Finally, this article offers the recent progress on those theories and highlights the issues that have been discovered however, still unsolved. Nevertheless, it launches light on a new perspective of the problems and brings gaps for future research.

Keywords: Self-consciousness, self-awareness, self, and objective self-awareness.
Understanding Self and Objective Self-Awareness: Systematic Review of the Literature
Lucio Henrique, Enzo
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Abstract: Burning fires are caused by dry seasons, accidents, agriculture ambitions and real estate speculation, like in the case of a protected state park, called Parque Estadual da Serra do Tabuleiro, in Santa Catarina, Brazil. This preserved area suffers from anthropogenic pressure, especially near the beach, where urbanity takes place. The fires enhanced over the last 3 decades, mainly in 2012 and 2019. This study promotes a reflection about this rising fire and reviews study cases that mapped this state park. The principal objective is to exhibit a historical remote sensing of this area, supporting the park for its management and mitigated actions. Some researchers approached technical ways to map the park and corrected the satellite images with some methodologies. The most common satellite used for these burning areas was the LANDSAT satellite due to its resolution. Other researchers promoted reflections about the fire events describing its facts. Both approaches came with data and important information about the burning areas. In eight years (2001 to 2008) 1,375 hectares burned in the area, and in one year (2019) 1,123.66 hectares have suffered from fire. The rising fire is notable; therefore, this review encourages the remote sensing as a mitigated action for the next years to avoid future burning fires.

Keywords: Burning areas, remote sensing, Parque Estadual da Serra do Tabuleiro, Conservation Unit.
Forest Fires Remote Sensing Review in a Protected State Park in Santa Catarina, Brazil
Dutra de Sena, Julia
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Abstract: Climate change is widely regarded as one of the most pressing challenges facing societies worldwide. Governments and public institutions are employing various strategies to shape and address this issue. These include the development of strategic documents by international, national, regional and local authorities, as well as the implementation of legislation, incentives, education and information campaigns. The aim of this study is to collect public information on strategic documents on climate change in six Central and Eastern European countries between 2018 and 2022. In addition, this study aims to analyze the extent to which these cities have incorporated community participation into their local climate policies. In total, 25 public climate change policy documents were studied, focusing on those of Berlin (5), Bratislava (2), Budapest (1), Prague (3), Vienna (6), and Warsaw (8). Since some of these documents were written in the original language, they had to be translated before analysis. Although many cities recognize the impact of climate change on local communities and acknowledge their role as policy makers, community participation remains limited.

Keywords: Climate change, local climate policy, public policy documents, strategies, community involvement.
Local Climate Policy and Community Involvement. Case Study of Strategic Documents Addressing Climate Change in 6 CEE Countries
Dutra Franco, Brenda
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Abstract: This article delves into an analysis of time series forecasting, building upon existing research in this field by examining ARIMA models with explanatory variables and TBATS models in a particular modern competition context. At the conclusion, the ultimate goal is to present a comprehensive solution for the M5 Accuracy competition, the fifth instalment of the M competitions organized by the M Open Forecasting Centre (MOFC) at the University of Nicosia in 2020. Time series models were utilized to accurately forecast the daily sales volume of retail products sold by Walmart, in accordance with the framework of the M5 competition, since the historical sales data were generously provided by Walmart itself, for this globally open competition hosted on Kaggle (a renowned online community for data scientists and machine learning practitioners). Among the time series models evaluated, the TBATS models stood out, outperforming the ARIMA models and achieving commendable scores in the competition.

Keywords: Time series forecasting, dynamic regression models, TBATS models, M5 Accuracy competition.
ARIMA Models with Explanatory Variables for Time Series Forecasting on M5 Accuracy Competition
Faluhelyi, Igor
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Abstract: It’s consensual that the International Relations epistemology, in many of its theorical chains and most traditional ways of analysis, has a state-centric, contractual, Caucasian and hegemonic bibliography. The pillars of this discipline rises from a kind of intellectuality that adopts essentially a top-down approach, and therefore reproduces colonial discourses. Citizen Science - a recent scientific method that considers ordinary people as active subjects of science production, making science and reality observations an accessible possibility to a public not necessarily formally inserted in the academic field – appears as an alternative to promote inclusion and decentralization of hegemonic narratives in International Relations. By mapping the increase of Citizen Science in Latin America and in which fields the practice is spreading, observing indicators, reviewing the main Citizen Science platforms and, alongside with other author’s contributions, this research aims to identify tendencies of Citizen Science in Latin America, in special in Social Science segments, in order to prove that advocating toward it is an efficient way to break the Eurocentric theorical tradition in International Relations.

Keywords: Colonialism, Epistemology, Latin America, Anthropology, Political Economy, Social Science, protagonist, active subjects, bottom-up, science production, mapping, inclusive narratives.
How Does Citizen Science Relate to the Colonial Critics of International Relations? A View over Latin America
Fortuna, Larissa
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Abstract: Remote sensing technology has advanced significantly in recent decades, moving from aerial photographs taken from aircraft to high-resolution multi and hyperspectral images captured by orbital sensors. This progress has been supported by advancements in hardware and software, enabling sophisticated methods for image analysis in remote sensing research. Automatic classification of multispectral images is crucial for extracting information and identifying land cover patterns and other environmental characteristics of interest. In addition to spectral information, spatial information and context of neighboring pixels and objects are important in extracting meaningful information from remote sensing data. Region-based classifiers, which consider not only spectral information but also spatial relationships between pixels and their neighbors, are commonly used. This involves segmenting the image into contiguous pixels with relationships, which should be done prior to classification. In the study presented in this text, results of automatic classification of a Landsat image covering a portion of the municipality of Varginha/MG in Brazil are discussed. A supervised classification was performed using selected training samples. Although the accuracy rates were slightly below the desired level, according to the literature, this is not uncommon for automated classifications in regions with rugged terrain. To improve the quality of the maps, small corrections can be made using vector or raster editing operators available in GIS as a final adjustment procedure. This allows for a combination of automated classifiers and visual interpretation based on field observations to obtain reliable maps of watercourses, land use types, land occupation dynamics and other relevant environmental attributes in the region.

Keywords: Remote sensing, Image classification, Land use, Satellite Images, Landsat 8.
Analysis of Watercourses and Land Use Based on Automatic Classification of Satellite Images
França Araújo de Melo, Pedro
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Abstract: The work focused on the main proposals and planning for flood mitigation in the Lower Tamanduateí basin and the urban intervention processes for flood mitigation. The general objective of the work was to analyse the evolution of the versions of the Master Plan for Macro Drainage of the Upper Tietê Basin (PDMAT - known as Plano Diretor de Macrodrenagem da Bacia do Alto Tietê), for the proposals made for the Lower Tamanduateí Basin, regarding design and restriction flows and structural proposals to mitigate floods in this basin. Qualitative and quantitative research was carried out, with a deductive method and a documentary research procedure. The main results indicated an increase in the channel flow capacity at the mouth of Tamanduateí between the three versions of PDMAT. The restriction flow value (100-year return period, at the mouth) increased by 142% between versions II and III. Regarding structural proposals, PDMATs I and II brought proposals to build 19 detention reservoirs since 2009, and only 4 of these reservoirs were built by 2022. It was concluded that the interventions made in the main streams over the years, allowed the increase of flow capacity at the mouth, but contributed to the aggravation of floods. Historically, the main modifications made to the Tamanduateí course were not only of sanitary interest but also of financial and real estate interest, due to the appreciation of the land in the floodplains. The most significant difficulty for the implementation of reservoirs is not only monetary but also physical, to find suitable sites for their construction in a basin with a high density of urban occupation. Therefore, studies are proposed to implement smaller reservoirs in lots, such as green infrastructure. Also, it’s recommended that for future work on the concrete results brought about by the implementation of the reservoirs proposed in PDMAT, as to their efficiency and effectiveness in mitigating urban flooding in the Lower Tamanduateí basin, a survey be conducted with appropriate methodology and data to quantitatively evaluate how much it is possible to reduce the flood peak in different scenarios.

Keywords: Urban flooding, reservoirs, drainage plan.
Macro Drainage Plan Analysis for Flood Control in the Lower Tamanduateí Basin
Freitas Ferreira Santos, Débora
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Abstract: Magnesium is a biomaterial that was already used in the past, but its usage as cardiovascular stents is very new in the market. As a result, there are still limitations on its usage. After extensive research, the main problems identified with these types of alloys were linked to the fact that there are still not enough studies on this novel stent. Its fast degradation is associated with biocompatibility issues, which is still discussed. The formation of hydrogen gas, magnesium ions and magnesium hydroxide as it degrades have been proven to be disadvantageous, since it has been linked to the formation of gas pocket and the alkalinization of the local tissue, which makes it difficult for new cells to adhere. The mechanical properties of magnesium are also known to be poor, and although there are a lot of modifications that can be made to tackle these issues, they are usually in detriment of another important characteristic and hinders the manufacturing and quality control process. Magnesium has low tensile strength and ductility, making it a brittle material for stent making. The poor scaffolding properties results in the need of a thicker wall strut, which can cause repeat revascularization and severe vessel lumen loss. The fast and heterogenic corrosion and mechanical profile also makes its long-term efficacy questionable. There is still no identification of the risk factors and lesion types it is able to treat.

Keywords: Magnesium alloy, stent, degradation, biocompatibility, mechanical properties, long-term.
Limitations and Challenges of Magnesium Alloy Stents
Galeazzi Oliveira, Luiza
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Abstract: The constant advances in scientific research in the area of Artificial Intelligence have proposed new and innovative adaptive learning processes, tutors and intelligent systems, data mining, among others, which impact educational practices and research. All these factors encourage an exponential increase in the volume of educational data that can support decision-making in various aspects of educational institutions and public policies, especially in the continuing education of basic education teachers, which is one of the main demands of education. current. This study sought to identify the elements that could compose a proposal for planning an EDM model to help decision-making in the organization of personalized continuing education e-learning courses for basic education teachers in the Brazilian context. The problem of the study questioned which elements make up a proposal for an EDM model to support decision-making in the planning of e-learning courses for the continuing education of basic education teachers in the Brazilian context? From bibliographical research, the results indicate that research on EDM aimed at the continuing education of teachers in basic education in Brazil is incipient, so that there are several gaps in the study area and the need for further discussions on this theme in the scenario of scientific research. Existing research focuses on identifying the prediction of the profile of students who drop out of e-learning or face-to-face courses, however, several authors have been identified who indicate an EDM application taxonomy that can be used for the organization of e-learning courses for continuing education for basic education.

Keywords: EDM, artificial Intelligence, model, continuing education, teachers.
Planning an EDM Model for Continuing Teacher Education
Gomes Mendes, Débora Suzane
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Abstract: The construction industry plays a vital role in the country’s economic growth but faces numerous obstacles, including environmental impact. Traditional materials, such as Portland cement, have limited applications in marine construction due to their vulnerability to corrosion attacks in harsh marine environments. Therefore, there is increasing demand for long-lasting, corrosion-resistant materials that can withstand extreme marine environment conditions. Geopolymer materials are a promising alternative as they possess mitigating properties to the shortcomings of conventional building materials and have thus been studied over the years with significant improvements since their discovery in the late 1970s. Geopolymers are inorganic, amorphous, and typically ceramic-like materials formed by the chemical reaction of source materials with alkaline activators. They have lower CO2 emissions during production, require less water, and have superior mechanical properties superior to those of traditional cement-based materials. This literature review aims to investigate durable geopolymer materials that can be used in marine infrastructure works and their advantages over conventional materials.
The methodology involved searching major publication databases and other relevant sources to gather articles related to the topic. The risk of bias was evaluated using the ROBIS tool to ensure the review was comprehensive, systematic, and unbiased. The paper is divided into several sections after the research methodology that discuss the geopolymerization process, the characteristics of alkaline activators used in geopolymer synthesis, the properties of geopolymer materials, and case studies of geopolymer materials used and tested in marine conditions. The paper also discusses the limitations of the studies reviewed and outlines possible solutions. Finally, the review findings are summarized in the conclusion.

Keywords: Marine infrastructure, Portland cement, Geopolymer concrete, Compressive strength, Chloride resistance.
Eco-Friendly Engineering: Geopolymer Materials in Marine Construction
Gonzaga de Souza, Caroline
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Abstract: Pump tracks, structures that resemble skate parks, have been 3D printed by ICycle, using rPETG and the Fused Depositing Modeling. They, however, did not present an expected working life, breaking early due to a poor layer to layer adhesion. To improve their performance, the use of glass fiber reinforced PP and SmartAgain® was studied, with two different printing speeds and a previously developed lab scale model, focusing on the crystallization process during printing. The mechanical performance and the glass fiber alignment of the samples were also studied. It was seen that, for both materials, the half-time crystallization curve did not intercept the printing temperature profile, suggesting that crystallization is not completed in the first depositing of material. There is, then, a chance that post-crystallization will occur between the layers. Regarding mechanical properties, SmartAgain® presented a more ductile behaviour, a lower E-modulus and a higher maximum strain, besides deforming more before breaking, making it possibly a suitable material for 3D printing the pump tracks. Polypropylene reinforced with 20% of glass fiber was not recommended for the desired application, since the attempt to print bigger samples with it failed due to warping. Both printing speeds led to similar results, without any significant difference for the tensile and bending tests. The alignment of the fibers could be analysed through SEM, showing that the samples presented isotropy. The mechanical performance for the parallel direction was improved by the fibers, meanwhile for the perpendicular direction they did not show any improvement.

Keywords: 3D printing, Additive manufacturing, Fused depositing modelling, Pump tracks, Layer to layer adhesion, Crystallization, Avrami equation, Polypropylene, Polyamide, Glass fibers.
3D Printing Pump Tracks: Improving the Layer to Layer Adhesion through Crystallization Studies
Gouvea de Souza, Mariana
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Abstract: The present article discusses the case of transitional amnesties before the International Criminal Court. Transitional Amnesties are a tool used by States facing transitional periods in order to ease the change into a new system at the end of a conflict, aiming at establishing peace and reconciliation. It is discussed how could these amnesties be read in light of article 17.1.c of the Rome Statute. According to this article, a case is inadmissible when the person concerned has already been tried for conduct that is the subject of the complaint. Under the present text, a legal analysis is developed both with regard to the elements of article 17.1.c and the matter of the legality of granting amnesties in the event of grave crimes against humanity. It is concluded that, even though international law seems to point out in the direction that this type of amnesty is outlawed, the International Criminal Court is still reluctant to issue a final conclusion on the matter.

Keywords: Amnesties; International Criminal Court; Transitional Justice; Ne bis in idem.
Preparing for Post-conflict Reconciliation: The Case of Amnesties in Light of Article 17 (1)(C) Of the Rome Statute
Guimarães Carrijo, Augusto
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Abstract: This article explains how Brazilian education still functions in a capitalist way, the text explains how the education of the poorest is inferior to the education of the richest and most affluent populations, a brief history that shows how science education was established in the Brazilian school curriculum, and finally the article exposes the contradictions found during the comparison between three public schools and two private schools in the city of Diadema located in São Paulo (Brazil). The main means of research used was the Internet.

Keywords: Schools, teaching, education, science, infrastructure.
Discrepancy Between Public and Private Education: Deficiency in Brazilian Science Education
Gularte Rosa, Mariana Regina
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Abstract: The YOLOv8 algorithm has become a widely-used method for object detection due to its ability to detect objects in real time with high accuracy. However, one of the challenges faced in the field is the necessity of huge labeled datasets with sufficient diversity to train models to recognize objects effectively. In the case of Brazilian traffic signs, for example, such datasets are rare and often inadequate, which can lead to reduced accuracy when detecting these objects. To address this challenge, we propose the use of synthetic image generation to augment the available dataset of Brazilian traffic signs. By generating synthetic images, we aim to provide additional diversity to the dataset and improve object detection accuracy. Specifically, we utilize the YOLOv8 algorithm to train the original manually annotated images and the synthetic images, which were generated using various background images from the Microsoft COCO dataset. The effectiveness of the model is assessed by comparing its mean average precision (mAP) performance on both the real and the augmented datasets. This enables us to measure the impact of the synthetic image generation on the model's performance and determine how much it improves the accuracy of object detection. The results of this study contribute to advancing the field of object detection and provide insights into how synthetic image generation can be utilized to address the challenge of inadequate datasets in other areas as well.

Keywords: Convolutional neural networks, Brazilian traffic signs, data augmentation, artificial image generation, deep learning.
Improve Training on Convolutional Neural Networks with Artificial Samples
Knauer de Queiroz Verçosa, João Pedro
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Abstract: The process maturity model and the management capability index are both frameworks that organizations can use to assess their capabilities and identify areas for improvement, but they have different strengths and weaknesses. This paper presented four models: Capability Maturity Model (CMM), Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI), Project Management Capability Assessment (PMCA) and Management Capability Index (MCI). A brief review will compare these models, by analyzing their general strengths, weaknesses, and differences in terms of their approach to measuring management competences. Choosing the most appropriate model depends on the specific needs and context of the organization, and a combination of different models may provide a more comprehensive assessment of management capabilities.

Keywords: Management competencies, process maturity, CMM, CMMI, PCMA, MCI.
Assessing Organizational Capabilities: A Review of Four Management Capability Models and Their Strengths and Weaknesses
Kourroski Pedroso, Ana Paula
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Abstract: During the pandemic COVID -19 there were various challenges around the world. To address the health crisis, global leaders and health experts sought to contain the disease. Scientists and researchers strove to develop timely vaccines. Nevertheless, results varied across countries, given the procedures and strategies used. Nevertheless, all levels of health care were important to support and care for the population, especially primary care. This paper discusses the role of general practitioners and nurses in vaccination against COVID-19.

Keywords: Primary Health Care, Vaccination, and COVID-19.
The Role of GPs and Nurses in Vaccination during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Lemos Ferreira, Nestor
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Abstract: This paper discusses the concepts developed by the legal philosopher Hans Kelsen on democracy, representation and the people. This serves the function of expanding the understanding about Kelsen’s political philosophy, a much less studied aspect of his academic production than the Pure Theory of Law. Arguably, the same formalism seen in his most famous book is a key aspect of his defence of democracy, for the material content of the political regime is not a greater preoccupation than the means by which law is enacted. Being a formalist does not impede Kelsen – on the contrary, one might see – from being strictly realist about the subject of his studies. He does well know that social life provides no greater liberty than life as an individual. Democracy is seen as only a mechanism by which that freedom is the least restricted, for what is called “the people” has participation in the decision making. Thus, majority rule is the principle that guarantees that the minimum number of individuals is subject to laws enacted by a will that is not theirs. By the end of this article, the opposition between Kelsen’s idea of democracy and the Marxist understanding about the political regime’s material determination shall be analysed.

Keywords: Hans Kelsen, Democracy, Pure Theory of Law, Formalism, People.
Democracy and Its Limitations: A Study on Hans Kelsen’s Political Theory
Lima Castro Tranjan, Alexandre
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Abstract: Human Rights have, per definition, the intent of being applicable to humanity as a whole. However, their drafting processes did not necessarily presuppose equal involvement of all nations that would later be affected by their positivization. In this sense, this paper intends to analyse which were the values, concepts and definitions that lead to the characterization of the rights today known as Human Rights. To that aim, a review of the literature on the matter was conducted, specially related to the preparatory works and historical background of the drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Thus, Human Rights are presently accessed with a political and historical approach, to analyse if and how some specific, notably Western values, were imbued in them during and after their drafting processes. Finally, the present work also analyses the theories regarding the dissemination of Human Rights throughout the globe and how Human Rights treaties were received and into domestic legal systems.

Keywords: Human Rights. Human Rights Treaties. Preparatory Works. Universalism. Cultural Relativism.
Historical Approach on Protected Human Rights
Lobato Oliveira, Luísa
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Abstract: Artificial intelligence (AI) has rapidly advanced in the past few years and has become an essential part of our daily lives, transforming the way we communicate, work, and interact with technology. Today, AI is a rapidly growing field with many applications in various industries. AI-based technologies are used to improve efficiency, make better decisions based on large amounts of data, and automate routine tasks. As AI technology continues to evolve and expand into new areas, there is an increasing need for regulatory frameworks to ensure its responsible development and use. Regulating AI presents multifaceted and complex challenges, requiring an understanding of both the technology itself and its potential impact on society. Control of privacy and data security and control of autonomous systems are examples of areas that need regulation so that the evolution of these systems does not negatively affect people's lives. This article explores the development and current state of artificial intelligence in our society, the challenges that face its regulation, and predictions for its future. The article discusses the evolution of AI from the mid-20th century, when computer scientists started exploring the possibility of creating machines capable of simulating human intelligence, to the present day, where AI is already a part of our lives. It also explores its current landscape, including its applications in healthcare, finance, transportation, and other fields.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, AI, Machine Learning, Regulation, Computing, Technology.
The Future of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the Challenges for Its Regulation
Lima Moura, Gabriel
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